Geography of HoshiarpurHoshiarpur is geographically located towards the east of Punjab state. At a height of 296 meters above the sea level, the city experiences comparatively mild climate due to its huge forest reserves and hilly terrains. Hoshiarpur city is the district headquarters for Hoshiarpur district which is divided into four tehsils, 10 blocks, and 5 sub tehsils for administrative purposes. Hoshiarpur I and Hoshiarpur II are the major cities of this district which shares its borders with Kangra and Una districts of Himachal Pradesh in north east direction with Jalandhar and Kapurthala flanking it from southwest.
It is bordered by Gurdaspur district of Punjab in northwest direction. Falling in Bist Doab of Doaba region, this entire district is spread over the area of about 3365 sq km out of which 34% area is covered by dense forests. It is quite rich in minerals as well. Maize and Paddy are the chief Kharif crops while wheat and oil seeds of Mustard and Sunflower are the principal Rabi crops in Hoshiarpur.
Topography of HoshiarpurThe district Hoshiarpur is located in Indo Gangetic plains and Sutlej sub basin constituting the part of Indus Main basin. Topography of Hoshiarpur is divided into three main regions. The fertile region of Dasuya, Mukerian and Tanda blocks comes under flood plains and is nearly one fourth of the total area of this district. The main cultivable areas of Hoshiarpur are located under this region with adequate irrigation facilities. The second topographical region is Kandi belt of Hoshiarpur II with Bhunga and Talwara being its other significant parts. This is the region that is covered with undulating plains at the foothills of Shivalik Ranges.
The slopes of this region fall towards the western parts of district with soil erosion caused by the small streams of water inundating this area. This region is nearly the half of Hoshiarpur district and cultivation is generally rain fed here. The third region of this district has Hoshiarpur I, Garh Shankar, and Mahilpur as main areas. This topographical region also has undulating plains with sandy soil.
The soil of Hoshiarpur region is yellowish to dark brown with sand forming major portion of it. Calcareous sand, sandy loams and silts are the main components of soil here. There are alluvial deposits of piedmont and fluvial types occupying whole district with better ground water conditions.
There are mineral deposits of white quartzite in several areas of district. Some areas also have calcareous Tufa with shells of invertebrates. Coal, clay, and building materials like gravel and boulder are also found in this region.
Flora and Fauna of HoshiarpurHoshiarpur is quite rich in flora as well with numerous varieties found in its forests. The main trees found in the district are Phulahi, Kikar, Drek, Shisham, Siris, Mulberry, and Ber. Thick groves are found in borders of the choes due to good soil quality. There are other trees grown for their properties and usage. These include Aisam for fodder, Amla for pickle making, Amaltas for tanning, Bahera for medicinal uses, Ber for its fruits and hard woods that give protection to nearby crops. Other trees found in Hoshiarpur region are Chil, Dhaman, Gauhin, Phaguri, Harar, Kakkar, Jaman, Kamila, Maulsari, Lasura, and Neem.
The shrubs mainly found in this region are Garna, Mendar, and Basuti. These shrubs are commonly used as firewood, for hedging, and as manure. Bamboo and Bambusa Bambos are the principal grasses in this district. They are available in three varieties viz, bans, nal, and magar. The other varieties of grass found are Kharkana, Kahi, Khabal, Bagar, Bui, Boru, Nara, and Bulrush. All the parts of these grasses are usable for various purposes ranging from thatching to rope making.
The district has huge forests and one wildlife reserve at Takhni Rehmapur. In the jungles, Partridges, Hare, Wild Boar, and Hog Deer are found with occasional spotting of Sambhar, Barking Deer, and Spotted Deer. There are sightings of Jungle Cat, Indian Mongoose, Indian Jackal, Fruit Bat, Indian Porcupine, Black Buck, and Nilgai in the forests of district. Hoshiarpur has numerous varieties of resident and migratory birds including Plain Leaf Warbler, Brown Chiffchaff, Rose Finch, Yellow Headed Wagtail, European Bee Eater, Demosile Crane, Ruddy Sheldrake, Pintail, White Eyed Poachard, Mallard, and Gadwall.
Water Bodies in HoshiarpurThough the district of Hoshiarpur lacks a perennial river, it has tributaries of Beas and Sutlej inundating its land towards North Western and Southern directions. Beas River enters this district at Talwara and after a distance of 40 km forms the boundary between Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur districts. The White Bein and Black Bein tributaries of this river occupy a major portion of district and they contain water all through the year. They originate in a jhil and then proceed like a master stream with lesser width but greater depth.
Other main water bodies found in this district are the seasonal streams called choes. They have strong presence throughout this district and they are generally named after the areas through which they are passing. In the rainy season, these choes get flooded with water and then this water shrinks away fast leaving the thick deposits of sand and silt behind. They originate from Shivalik slopes and take shape of wide channels after entering the foothill plains. There are more than 100 choes flowing in this district though their channelization has been done to avoid any disaster caused by over flooding. Apart from these, there are many dams and canals like Shan Nahar Canal and Bist Doab Canal present in Hoshiarpur.
Climate of HoshiarpurClimate of this district is witnessed to be somewhat mild, though; the season pattern remains to be similar to rest of state towards the valleys and sloping terrains. It witness tropical steppe, hot and arid climate with dry summers and very cold winters. There are three main seasons occurring in the district. Summers lasting from April to July, south west monsoon from July to September end, and winters from October till March end. Period from September to November can be termed as transition period as well. May and June are the hottest months with temperature falling below 5 degrees Celsius in extreme winters of January month.
The rainfall is considerable in Monsoon season from July to September. Rainfall in this district increases from direction of southwest towards northeast. In the wake of its monsoon rains, humidity level also increases during the rainy months in Hoshiarpur. At an average of 1125 mm, there is slight rainfall in winter months also caused by western disturbances occurring in Persian Gulf. There are occasional thunder storms and hail storms in non monsoon period in the end of winters. This causes damage to the fruit cultivation, especially that of mangoes grown here in abundance.
Geography of Hoshiarpur Facts
Location: 31.53°N 75.92°E
Coordinates: North Latitude 30 Degree-9 and 32 degree-05
East Longitude 75 degree -32 and 76 degree -12
Area: 3386 sq km
Elevation: 296 m
Forest Area: 1000 sq km
Soil Types: Calcareous sand, silt, sandy loam
Main Physiographic Units: Alluvial plains
Cultivable Land: 3410 sq km
Average Rainfall: 1125 mm